2.5 – Understanding the Load – Vehicles Equipment and Machinery

This lesson deals with restraining Vehicles and Mobile Equipment

This includes rubber tyred vehicles steel wheeled or tracked vehicle and mobile equipment as well as equipment that can be moved from site to site on a truck.

Rubber-tyred, steel-wheeled and steel-tracked vehicles

Lashing Points

These types of equipment may have built in lashing points and may come with manufacturers loading and restraint recommendations. However, if lashing points are fitted it is still important to check the ratings of the lashing points to ensure the recommendations are compliant with local standards.

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The lashing points need to be in locations that allow direct pulling on the lashing point and should be clearly marked by colour coding or labelling and have their restraint capacity marked.

When restraining equipment which does not have built in lashing points it is possible to loop restraints around the equipment provided the equipment is strong enough to withstand the required forces without damage or working loose.

It is important to also consider the adequacy of the lashing point on the vehicle which is covered in lesson 3.7

Which Lashings

Chains should be used to restrain any vehicles or equipment which have suitable attachment points.

Webbing should only be used for light motor vehicles or equipment.

Wire rope may be used in some circumstances but consult pages 109 , 179 and 180 of the load restraint guide if using wire rope.

Whichever type of lashing is used it is important that the lashing points are strong enough, that the lashings have adequate capacity and are tensioned appropriately. (see lessons 3.5 and 3.7)

Which Vehicle
If the item being restrained is relatively small, it may be possible to use medium or heavy rigid vehicles such as tray top or tilt tray vehicles.

General freight vehicle

But if the vehicle is taller or heavier it may be advisable to use a low loader to reduce the vehicle’s Centre of Gravity and thereby increase stability.

In most instances these vehicles will be restrained by direct lashings with blocking sometimes used to provide additional restraint.

In some cases it may be possible to restrain a vehicle or piece of equipment by containing them within the body of a vehicle, care needs to be taken to ensure the vehicle or equipment cannot bounce out of the vehicle or move excessively through using dunnage, providing vertical restraint and/or ensuring the sides of the vehicle are high enough.

Attaching the lashings

It is important to ensure that a chain is protected from any sharp edges, or repositioned to give it a straight line pull

Where front or rear towing brackets are available ensure that the lashings cannot work themselves free and if the brackets do not have round pins use suitably rated shackles to prevent chain damage.

In order to restrain movement in two directions (forward/backward) and sideways it is important to use two separate lashings as a single lashing passed through a lashing point will not restrain sideways movement.

Restraining Vehicles

Restraining vehicles is complicated and is discussed extensively on pages 105-124 and pages 218- 226 of the LRG. Careful consideration needs to be given to the dimensions of the vehicle, application of brakes, friction between the wheels or tracks and the truck surface, flexibility of tyres and suspensions, restraining moving parts on the vehicle and the forces produced by lashings and lashing angles. The details of these issues are beyond the scope of this training module and the load restraint guide should be consulted for detailed advice in relation to the restraining of vehicles.

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